Do you know your rights if an Illinois police officer stops you? The Fourth Amendment protects you from illegal search and seizure. And in some cases, “unlawful search” means that you don’t have to identify yourself just because a law enforcement officer asks. However, some questions arise when people ask about the stop-and-identify laws in Illinois. Today, the criminal defense lawyers at the Law Offices of Glenn & West, LLC, address common misconceptions about these laws.
What Is a Stop and Identify State?
A stop-and-identify state is one with laws that permit police officers to order someone to identify themselves by name if the officers have a reasonable suspicion that the person committed a crime. However, if the police do not have reasonable suspicion that one has committed or is about to commit a crime, the individual in question does not have to state their name. Not every state has this law, but Illinois does, so you must know what you can and cannot do if you are confronted by police and asked to identify yourself.
Your Fourth Amendment Rights
Your Fourth Amendment rights require warrants to be issued only if probable cause exists; this amendment protects you from unreasonable searches and seizures.
In several landmark cases, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that a police officer asking for names during a stop based on reasonable suspicion does not violate the Fourth Amendment. Two examples include Terry v. Ohio (1968) and Hiibel v. Sixth Judicial District Court of Nevada (2004).
So, in Illinois, if a crime has just been committed and police are looking for suspects, you must disclose your name if you’re stopped and if you resemble the description of a suspect.
That said, there may be some confusion about precisely what you must say. In 1983, the Supreme Court ruled that the Fifth Amendment protection against self-incrimination can extend to identifying oneself to the police. In Illinois, if you are asked to identify yourself to the police, you must comply; if you are pulled over for a traffic stop, you must produce your driver’s license to establish your identity.
So, what does this law mean if you are suspected of or have been charged with a crime?
When Can Police Officers Make You Identify Yourself?
Legally, the police can ask your name whenever they wish, but you don’t have to comply every time, and there are some situations in which you do not have to show them your ID card.
For example, Illinois does not have a law that requires residents to carry an identification card (such as a driver’s license or state-issued ID card). Nor does it have a law that requires you to produce an ID card to the police if you have one. Remember, the only situations in which you are lawfully required to identify yourself to police are if they have a reasonable suspicion that you have committed a crime and:
- You are in a public place; and
- The officer identifies themselves as the police.
In addition to your name, an Illinois police officer can ask your address and specific questions about actions you took, such as:
- Why were you running?
- Are you armed?
- Why were you leaving the place where the crime was committed?
While you may not have to legally answer in some situations, if you do answer the police, you must give your real name. Otherwise, you may be charged with obstructing a police investigation. If you’re driving in Illinois, though, and are stopped, you have to identify yourself.
What to Say if You’re Asked to Identify Yourself
Remember, you have the right to remain silent when police ask you questions. You also have the right to ask to speak with a lawyer. You do not have to identify yourself unless:
- You are pulled over while driving;
- There is reasonable suspicion that you were involved in a committed crime; or
- There is reasonable suspicion that you were preparing to commit a crime.
Remember, when questioned by police, you are within your rights to remain silent and ask for an attorney.
Do You Need an Illinois Criminal Defense Lawyer?
If you’ve been accused of a crime because you failed to identify yourself or were arrested because you resembled a suspect, the criminal defense attorneys at the Law Offices of Glenn & West, LLC, can help. Here, our seasoned attorneys understand police techniques very well and are dedicated to protecting your constitutional rights when police interrogate you.
If you have further questions about stop-and-identify laws in Illinois, contact us today to schedule a confidential consultation.
The information provided on this website does not, and is not intended to, constitute legal advice; all information, content, and materials available on this site are for general informational purposes only.